Reading and Reference


Martial arts training: A novel “cure” for juvenile delinquency

Trulson, M. E. (1986). Martial arts training: A novel “cure” for juvenile delinquency. Human relations, 39(12), 1131-1140.

Juvenile delinquents, identified by their scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) received training under one of three different protocols for 1 hour three times weekly for a period of 6 months. Group I students received training in the traditional Korean Martial Art of Tae Kwon Do, Group II students received training in a “modern” version of the martial art which did not emphasize the psychological/philosophical aspects of the sport as the Korean version did, and group III students served as a control group for contact with the instructor and physical activity. Group I students showed decreased aggressiveness, lowered anxiety, increased selfesteem, increased social adroitness, and an increase in value orthodoxy, as indicated by before-and-after scores on the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI), in addition to normal MMPI scores at the completion of the study. Group II students showed an even greater tendency toward delinquency on the MMPI than they did at the beginning of the study, a large increase in aggressiveness, and generally opposite effects of Group I on the JPL Group Ill students showed no notable differences on any of the personality measures. These data suggest that training in the traditional martial art of Tae Kwon Do is effective in reducing juvenile delinquent tendencies.

Anxiety in black-belt and nonblack-belt traditional karateka. Perceptual and motor skills

Layton, C. (1990). Anxiety in black-belt and nonblack-belt traditional karateka. Perceptual and motor skills, 71(3), 905-906.

Administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to 93 male Shotokan karateka (martial arts) students (aged 16–54 yrs). The 21 Ss at the dan (black-belt) level were less trait and less state anxious than the 72 Ss at the novice or kyu level. There was a negative association for years of training and measures of anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Personality characteristics and duration of ATA Taekwondo training.

Kurian, M., CATERING, L. C., & Kulhavy, R. W. (1993). Personality characteristics and duration of ATA Taekwondo training. Perceptual and motor skills, 76(2), 363-366.

Students in ATA Taekwondo schools were administered the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The students were divided into two groups of 15 persons each based on 0-1.4 yr. vs 1.5 + yr. spent in formal Taekwondo training. From the 16 PF, scores on two second-order and one derived factor were calculated for Anxiety, Independence, and Leadership. The groups having longer Taekwondo training times scored significantly lower on Anxiety and higher on Independence. Although Leadership scores were higher for the longer trained group they were not statistically significant.

Aggression and Psychological well-being of adolescent TAE KWON DO participants in comparison with HOCKEY participants and non-sport group

Steyn, B. M. J., & Roux, S. (2009). Aggression and Psychological well-being of adolescent TAE KWON DO participants in comparison with HOCKEY participants and non-sport group. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 15(1), 32-43.

Aggression among young adolescents has reached dangerous levels in contemporary society, especially in the school context where acts of aggression have increased dramatically. According to experts, schools in South Africa have become one of the most dangerous places where violence varies from blunt assaults on learners to bite wounds and fire-arm related injuries. It is a well accepted notion in Sport and Social Sciences that sport is an extension of society and the problems in society are also the problems in sport, therefore the aggression problem in society naturally extends into sport. It is therefore, imperative for educators and researchers to look at new ways to contain and reduce aggression in young adolescents, as well as finding creative ways to improve the psychological well-being of learners in our schools. The aim of this investigation is to determine if Tae Kwon Do, as a special form of Martial Art , can reduce aggression levels and improve psychological well-being significantly in comparison with hockey participants and a non sport group. A survey method and two standardized questionnaires were used in this study namely, an Aggression Questionnaire and a Psychological Well-being Questionnaire. The research indicated the following : the Verbal Aggression and Hostility scores of the Tae Kwon Do participants were significantly lower than the hockey participants and non sport group. The Personal Growth and Self-acceptance scores of Tae Kwon Do participants were significantly higher than the hockey participants and non sport group. 

Length of training, hostility and the martial arts: a comparison with other sporting groups

Daniels, K., & Thornton, E. (1992). Length of training, hostility and the martial arts: a comparison with other sporting groups. British journal of sports medicine, 26(3), 118-120.


Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent’s stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility.

An effective approach to violence prevention: traditional martial arts in middle school

Zivin, G., Hassan, N. R., DePaula, G. F., Monti, D. A., Harlan, C., Hossain, K. D., & Patterson, K. (2000). An effective approach to violence prevention: traditional martial arts in middle school. Adolescence, 36(143), 443-459.

This study replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. In the present study, 60 boys in a large urban middle school were required to take a traditional martial arts course in their school. They were paired on problematic behavior profiles and assigned to a treatment group or to a wait-list control group. Thirty classes, three per week (45 minutes each), were taught by a master of Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo and his assistant (neither was a public school teacher). Results are reported here for 14 variables from the following measures: four teacher rating scales from the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory, five self-report scales of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, four computerized measures of attentional self-control from the Intermediate Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and a count of permanent expulsions from school. The treatment students improved over baseline on 12 variables, while the controls improved on 5 by small amounts and deteriorated from baseline on 8, including teacher-rated violence. There were significant differences between the groups on self-reported happiness and schoolwork and on one measure of attention. After controls took the course, their scores resembled the postcourse scores of the treatment group. Importantly, the control group’s increase in teacher-rated violence was reversed. Both groups were then pooled to compare baseline and postcourse teacher ratings. Their scores improved significantly in the areas of resistance to rules, impulsiveness, and inappropriate social behavior. There was also improvement in regard to violence, but the change in scores was not statistically significant. Follow-up on teachers’ ratings showed that improvement remained, and in some cases increased, four months after completion of the course. Interestingly, all 6 permanent expulsions were among the control group students who had not yet taken, or had only begun taking, the martial arts course.

Effects of participation in a martial arts–based antibullying program in elementary schools

Twemlow, S. W., Biggs, B. K., Nelson, T. D., Vernberg, E. M., Fonagy, P., & Twemlow, S. W. (2008). Effects of participation in a martial arts–based antibullying program in elementary schools. Psychology in the Schools, 45(10), 947-959.

This study evaluated the Gentle Warrior Program, a traditional martial arts–based intervention to reduce aggression in children, as it was implemented in three elementary schools. The sample consisted of 254 children in grades 3, 4, and 5 who participated in the Gentle Warrior Program as part of a larger school violence intervention. Results indicated that boys who participated in more Gentle Warrior sessions reported a lower frequency of aggression and greater frequency of helpful bystanding (i.e., helpful behavior toward victims of bullying) over time, relative to boys with less frequent participation. The effect of participation on aggression was partially mediated by empathy. The effect of participation on helpful bystanding was fully mediated by changes in student empathy. No significant results were found for girls. Results of the study provide preliminary support for the use of martial arts–based interventions to address bullying in schools for boys, by teaching empathy, self-control, and peaceful strategies to resolve conflicts. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Babcock Meriwther, M. (2008), The Effects of Aikido Training on Perceived Stress in Adults, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology

This investigation assessed the effects of aikido training on reported perceived stress in adults over a 10 week period. Utilizing a repeated measures, controlled design (= 32), quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Participants were assessed following a pretest, midpoint, and posttest format. Independent 2-tailed tests were applied to all of the pretreatment data to ensure that there were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups. In addition, the available data from the participants who dropped out of the study was analyzed to ensure that there were no significant differences between the participants who stayed in the study and those who dropped out. The assessment battery included the 10-item version of Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, the Vitality Plus Scale, the Positive States Survey, the Positive Affect- Negative Affect Schedule, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (2nd edition). The intervention was a 10 session training (1 1/2 hours weekly, group format) divided into 2 segments; 5 weeks of physical aikido training and 5 weeks of cognitive learning about the principles of aikido. The treatment group began with 5 weeks of physical aikido followed by 5 weeks of cognitive learning. The internal control group began with 5 weeks of cognitive learning followed by 5 weeks of physical aikido training. The results show that physical aikido training has a statistically significant effect on positive psychological and physiological states as measured by the Positive States Survey, and physical aikido training significantly decreases angry feelings and angry behaviors as measured by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (2nd edition). This intervention study adds relevant statistical data to the anecdotal literature and qualitative research on the positive potential for change through aikido practice.

Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts training

Lakes, K. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2004). Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts training. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology25(3), 283-302.

The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a comparison (traditional physical education) group. Outcomes were assessed using multidimensional, multimodal assessments. After a 3-month intervention, results indicated that the martial arts group demonstrated greater improvements than the comparison group in areas of cognitive self-regulation, affective self-regulation, prosocial behavior, classroom conduct, and performance on a mental math test. A significant Group × Gender interaction was found for cognitive self-regulation and classroom conduct, with boys showing greater improvements than girls. Possible explanations of this interaction as well as implications for components of martial arts training for the development of self-regulation in school-age children are discussed.



Therapy in America 2004 Harris Interactive (2004). Therapy in America 2004. Retrieved December27, 2005.

Therapy in America 2004 Poll Shows: Mental Health Treatment Goes Mainstream

A surprising number of Americans receive help; report satisfaction with treatment. More than one-third of those who need treatment do not receive it. Prescription medication is the predominant type of mental health treatment. Stigma is down but not out.

Long-term outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy clinical trials in central Scotland

Durham, R. C., Chambers, J. A., Power, K. G., Sharp, D. M., Macdonald, R. R., Major, K. A., … & Gumley, A. I. (2005). Long-term outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy clinical trials in central Scotland. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)9(42), 1-174. 

OBJECTIVES: To establish the long-term outcome of participants in clinical trials of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders and psychosis, examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness associated with receiving CBT in comparison with alternative treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: Psychological therapy services need to recognise that anxiety disorders tend to follow a chronic course and that good outcomes with CBT over the short term are no guarantee of good outcomes over the longer term. Clinicians who go beyond standard treatment protocols of about 10 sessions over a 6-month period are unlikely to bring about greater improvement. Poor outcomes over the long term are related to greater complexity and severity of presenting problems at the time of referral, failure to complete treatment irrespective of modality and the amount of interim treatment during the follow-up period. The relative gains of CBT are greater in anxiety disorders than in psychosis. Longitudinal research designs over extended periods of time (2-5 years), with large numbers of participants (500+), are required to investigate the relative importance of patient characteristics, therapeutic alliance and therapist expertise in determining the cost-effectiveness of CBT in the longer term.


Embodiment and mood regulation: an experimental approach to the role of the body in mood regulation processes

Rahona López, J. J. (2013). Embodiment and mood regulation: an experimental approach to the role of the body in mood regulation processes. Cognición corpórea y regulación anímica: aproximación experimental al papel del cuerpo en los procesos de regulación emocional (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Complutense de Madrid).


Within the present work, we will introduce the concept of embodied cognition, an approach that considers the role of the body in cognitive processing. General findings of this approach and particularly those studies that could have intersections or implications for applied clinical psychology will be reviewed. We will also focus on models which either have included the body as a significant factor in their explanation of psychological disorders or have been directly inspired by the embodied cognition account. Moreover, we will introduce some psychological interventions that include the body as a significant part of the therapy. This empirical work includes three experiments aimed to examine the role of the body on mood regulation processes that will be described and discussed. Finally, we draw some conclusions and assess the implications which these experiments and, more generally, embodied cognition may have for clinical psychology.


There is increasing evidence that a dysfunction in the regulation of negative mood states plays a significant role in the onset and maintenance of depression. Research has found that levels of depression are associated with the intensity of mood regulation deficit. The present study aimed to explore the role which the body plays in mood regulation processes. More specifically, we studied whether head movements could have an influence on mood regulation in dysphoric states. Participants were induced into a sad mood and then performed a mood regulation task in which they were presented with a set of positive pictures immediately after performing either vertical (i.e., nodding) or lateral (i.e., shaking) head movements. We considered changes in mood before and after the experimental task as an index of the effectiveness of mood regulation. As expected, the results showed that higher levels of dysphoria were associated with greater difficulty in regulating the participants’ mood. More importantly, this association was present in participants who shook their heads, but not in those who nodded. The implications these results have for the study of mood regulation processes and for the understanding and treatment of psychological disorders are discussed.


Neves, D., & Magalhaes, M. K. (2013). The effect of somatic awareness exercise on the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response (Doctoral dissertation).

Stress is an integral part of daily living and supports the ability to adapt. However, chronic activation without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading the physiological and psychological systems. Since urban South Africans are sedentary and experience high levels of stress, they are developing stress related chronic conditions and hypokinetic diseases (obesity, hypertension, depression). This study is aimed at decreasing the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response through somatic awareness exercise and aerobic exercise. The present investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative experimental research design over an eight-week period using pre- and post-tests. Participants were measured for psychological stress via a perceived stress scale and the chronic physical manifestations were measured via heart rate, blood pressure and body sway. The number of volunteers in the present study was 102 and they were recruited from corporate environments in the Johannesburg area. Their ages ranged from 18 to 65 years. The sample consisted of females (n = 42; % = 75) and males (n = 14; % = 25); white (n = 39; % = 69.6), black (n = 12; % = 21.4) and Indian (n = 5; % = 8.9) participants and non-smokers (n = 41; % = 73.2) and smokers (n = 15; % = 26.8). Untrained individuals were divided into 4 groups: a somatic awareness exercise (n = 9), aerobic exercise (n = 15), combination of somatic awareness and aerobic exercise group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 15). The aerobic group participated in aerobic activity, somatic awareness group in somatic awareness exercise and the combination group participated in both aerobic- and somatic awareness exercises. Individuals who trained were placed in a separate exercise group (n = 9) and had to add somatic awareness exercises to their weekly routines.

Statistical analysis utilised descriptive statistics, independent and dependant paired t-tests, One- Way Anova, post-hoc comparatives and size of effect tests were conducted. The independent t- test and the paired t-test were utilised to determine the significance [at a 95% confidence level (p = 0.05)] of the measures from the pre-test to the post-test in stress perception, blood pressure, heart rate and body sway. An independent t-test revealed significant changes for subjective stress perception in the aerobic-, somatic-, combination- and exercise group with a 95% confidence level in comparison to the control group, with the somatic awareness group and combination group having the highest effect sizes. There were no statistically significant differences in the control-, aerobic-, combination- or exercise group for objective measures (blood pressure, heart rate and body sway values). There were statistically significant decrements from the pre-test to the post-test in the somatic group for blood pressure, heart rate

ivand body sway. Somatic awareness exercise in this regard was successful in reducing subjective and objective stress measures in comparison to other modes of exercise. However, since one’s perception of exercise mode is effective in reducing subjective scores, any exercise modality is effective in providing relief from stress. Somatic awareness may be utilised as a coping tool for stress and from the decreased cardiovascular measures, one may decrease and prevent the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response in a Biokinetic setting.


Embodying the Mind and Representing the Body

Alsmith, A. J. T., & De Vignemont, F. (2012). Embodying the mind and representing the body. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 3(1), 1-13.

Abstract Doestheexistenceofbodyrepresentationsunderminetheexplanatoryroleof the body? Or do certain types of representation depend so closely upon the body that their involvement in a cognitive task implicates the body itself? In the introduction of this special issue we explore lines of tension and complement that might hold between the notions of embodiment and body representations, which remain too often neglected or obscure. To do so, we distinguish two conceptions of embodiment that either put weight on the explanatory role of the body itself or body representations. We further analyse how and to what extent body representations can be said to be embodied. Finally, we give an overview of the full volume articulated around foundational issues (How should we define the notion of embodiment? To what extent and in what sense is embodiment compatible with representationalism? To what extent and in what sense are sensorimotor approaches similar to behaviourism?) and their applications in several cognitive domains (perception, concepts, selfhood, social cognition).

Grounded cognition

Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 59, 617-645.

Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is com- putation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain’s modal systems for perception, action, and introspec- tion. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, so- cial cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

Two different faces of threat. Comparing the neural systems for recognizing fear and anger in dynamic body expressions

Pichon, S., de Gelder, B., & Grèzes, J. (2009). Two different faces of threat. Comparing the neural systems for recognizing fear and anger in dynamic body expressions. Neuroimage, 47(4), 1873-1883.

Being exposed to fear or anger signals makes us feel threatened and prompts us to prepare an adaptive response. Yet, while fear and anger behaviors are both threat signals, what counts as an adaptive response is often quite different. In contrast with fear, anger is often displayed with the aim of altering the behavior of the agent to which it is addressed. To identify brain responses that are common or specific to the perception of these two types of threat signals, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and asked subjects to recognize dynamic actions expressing fear, anger and neutral behaviors. As compared with neutral actions, the perception of fear and anger behaviors elicited comparable activity increases in the left amygdala and temporal cortices as well as in the ventrolateral and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Whereas the perception of fear elicited specific activity in the right temporoparietal junction, the perception of anger triggered condition-specific activity in a wider set of regions comprising the anterior temporal lobe, the premotor cortex and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, consistent with the hypothesis that coping with threat from exposure to anger requires additional contextual information and behavioral adjustments.

Visible embodiment: Gestures as simulated action

Hostetter, A. B., & Alibali, M. W. (2008). Visible embodiment: Gestures as simulated action. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 15(3), 495-514.

Spontaneous gestures that accompany speech are related to both verbal and spatial processes. We argue that gestures emerge from perceptual and motor simulations that underlie embodied language and mental imagery. We first review current thinking about embodied cognition, embodied language, and embodied mental imagery. We then provide evidence that gestures stem from spatial representations and mental images. We then propose the gestures-as-simulated-action framework to explain how gestures might arise from an embodied cognitive system. Finally, we compare this framework with other current models of gesture production, and we briefly outline predictions that derive from the framework.

Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. Handbook of emotion regulation

Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. Handbook of emotion regulation, 3, 24.

The topic of emotion regulation has now come into its own. Books, articles, and conferences related to emotion regulation seem to be everywhere. Enthusiasm has outpaced theoretical advances, however, and there is considerable confusion about what is even meant by “emotion regulation.” In this chapter, we seek to provide a conceptual foundation for the field. To this end, we first set emotion in the context of other affective processes. Next, we relate emotion regulation to other forms of self-regulation. We then present a process model of emotion regulation that distinguishes five points in the emotion-generative process at which emotions may be regulated. Using this model as our framework, we review research drawn from developmental and adult literatures related to each of five major families of emotion regulatory processes. We conclude by addressing several of the most pressing questions facing the field.


Military-related PTSD and intimate relationships: From description to theory-driven research and intervention development

Monson, C. M., Taft, C. T., & Fredman, S. J. (2009). Military-related PTSD and intimate relationships: From description to theory-driven research and intervention development. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(8), 707-714.

Military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought heightened awareness of military related PTSD, as well as the intimate relationship problems that accompany the disorder and can influence the course of veterans’ trauma recovery. In this paper, we review recent research that documents the association between PTSD and intimate relationship problems in the most recent cohort of returning veterans and also synthesize research on prior eras of veterans and their intimate relationships in order to inform future research and treatment efforts with recently returned veterans and their families. We highlight the need for more theoretically-driven research that can account for the likely reciprocally causal association between PTSD and intimate relationship problems to advance understanding and inform prevention and treatment efforts for veterans and their families. Future research directions are offered to advance this field of study.

Correlates of Anger and Hostility among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

Elbogen, E. B., Wagner, H. R., Calhoun, P. S., Fuller, S. R., & Kinneer, P. M. (2010). Correlates of Anger and Hostility among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans. The American journal of psychiatry, 167(9), 1051.

As troops return from Iraq and Afghanistan to civilian life, clinicians are starting to grapple with how best to detect those at risk of post-deployment adjustment problems. Data reveal the presence of mental health problems in these soldiers, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), head injury, and alcohol abuse. Each of these conditions has been associated with elevated anger and hostility in veterans from previous conflicts. The authors sought to identify variables empirically related to anger and hostility in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.


The three outcome measures were each significantly associated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Other PTSD symptoms were less strongly and less consistently linked to anger and hostility. Traumatic brain injury and alcohol misuse were related to the outcome variables in bivariate but not multivariate analyses. Distinct sets of demographic, historical, and military-related variables were associated with the different facets of anger and hostility were measured.

Violent behaviour in UK military personnel returning home after deployment

MacManus, D., Dean, K., Al Bakir, M., Iversen, A. C., Hull, L., Fahy, T., … & Fear, N. T. (2012). Violent behaviour in UK military personnel returning home after deployment. Psychological medicine, 42(08), 1663-1673.

Background There is growing concern about an alleged rise in violent behaviour amongst military personnel returning from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of violence in a sample of UK military personnel following homecoming from deployment in Iraq and to examine the impact of deployment-related experiences, such as combat trauma, on violence, and the role of sociodemographics and pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour.

Method This study used baseline data from a cohort study of a large randomly selected sample of UK Armed Forces personnel in service at the time of the Iraq war (2003). Regular personnel (n=4928) who had been deployed to Iraq were included. Data, collected by questionnaire, included information on deployment experiences, sociodemographic and military characteristics, pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, post-deployment health outcomes and a self-report measure of physical violence in the weeks following return from deployment.

Results Prevalence of violence was 12.6%. This was strongly associated with pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9–4.4]. After controlling for pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, sociodemographics and military factors, violence was still strongly associated with holding a combat role (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6–2.5) and having experienced multiple traumatic events on deployment (aOR for four or more traumatic events 3.7, 95% CI 2.5–5.5). Violence on homecoming was also associated with mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (aOR 4.8, 95% CI 3.2–7.2) and alcohol misuse (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.5–3.9).

Conclusions Experiences of combat and trauma during deployment were significantly associated with violent behaviour following homecoming in UK military personnel. Post-deployment mental health problems and alcohol misuse are also associated with increased violence.

Anger and Military Veteran

Miller, S. (2006). Anger and Military Veterans. Columbia University Journal of Student Social Work, 4(1), 7-16

Anger problems are most evident in veterans who are diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and have been exposed to combat. Because of the institutionalized role anger plays in military training, identity, and culture, anger problems are also an issue for former soldiers who have neither PTSD nor combat experience. Consequently, anger problems are an issue for many veterans whose inability to manage and express their anger constructively inhibits psychosocial functioning in multiple areas, including personal relationships, employment, self-esteem, and behavioral self-control. Empirically supported group interventions addressing this issue adhere to the principles of evidence-based practice and are particularly important given the current geopolitical climate. This paper reviews some of the current literature on clinical interventions for veterans experiencing anger problems and acknowledges the increasingly important role social workers are playing as mental health service providers to veterans with anger problems at institutions such as the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Problems with Anger and Violence Among United States Military Service Members

Worthen, M. E. (2012). Problems with Anger and Violence Among United States Military Service Members.

This dissertation examines problems with anger and violence among United States Military Service Members. In the first chapter, I review the literature on anger and aggression among veterans. Several studies have found associations between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam veterans. Little research has been done with veterans of recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Only one study examined anger problems among women veterans.

In the second chapter, I use a qualitative approach to explore how veterans themselves experience anger and how anger affects their lives. I show that veterans report experiencing problems with anger in multiple social contexts, including with family, friends, at work and school, and in the community. For most veterans, these problems dissipate over time as the veteran adjusts to civilian life. However, for some veterans, anger problems persist and can lead to adverse consequences, such as marital strife, dropping out of school, or being fired from a job.

In the third chapter, I use epidemiologic methods to assess quantitatively the prevalence of anger and violence in a population-based sample of current National Guard and Reserve service members. I examine the relations of problems with anger and violence with deployment history and PTSD status. Half of service members reported problems with anger. These problems are significantly more common among those who experienced traumas during deployment and those had PTSD. Only about 2% of service members reported problems with violence; however, these problems are much more common among those with deployment traumas and/or PTSD.

In sum, this dissertation shows that anger is a common problem among United States service members and that anger negatively affects service members in a variety of ways. Several new directions for research are indicated to more fully understand these problems.